Zoroastrian Calendar 2023
Updated: May 27
A Religious calendar is important and necessary to sustain the beliefs and practices of our religion and community. In Zoroastrianism, the calendar fulfils many important roles. 1) It helps one to understand and experience the principles of the zoroastrian faith in a more meaningful way.
2) It helps one to become ethically and ecologically more conscious of one’s life, the creations and the world we live in
3) It helps one to live life more meaningfully on a spiritual, emotional and physical level. 4) It helps one to follow the change of seasons and celebrate the annual religious festivals.
This Year Navroz will be celebrated on 16th August 2023.
Download Free Zoroastrian Calendar 2023
In Zoroastrianism, time is deemed to move on a linear scale, and therefore the belief is that there is a defined beginning with a definite end of time. Thus a Zoroatrian, who fulfills the Zoroastrian belief of defeating towards the final goal, which is the “Making Wonderful” - when it is said that evil will become inoperative and be defeated and the whole of creation will be restored to a perfect state. Time, as we know it, will cease to exist. The world will be filled with total goodness, harmony, peace, joy, and light. It is said in our sacred texts, that the first day of the month (Hormazd Roj) will merge with the 30th day i.e the Endless Light (Aneran Ruz) into the ONE timeless moment, when only Good will prevail, as a result of the total annihilation of evil from the world. The seven creations comprising the sky, water, earth, plants, cattle, man and fire will be restored to a deathless, immortal state, resulting in the total triumph of Hormazd and his legion of divinities.
Zoroastrian Calendar days Calculation
Zoroastrian Calendar divides time into Sal (Year), Mah (Month), Aathvadiyu (Week), Roz (Day) and Geh (Roughly 5 hours). A Roj (Day) begins at dawn of sun. Thus, morning hours before dawn are assigned to the previous day. Each day is divided into five Geh. In Shenshai calendar, a year consists of 12 Mahs. Each Mah has 30 Roj. Each of these days is known as a Roj having distinct name. As 30 Roj * 12 Mah = 360 Roj, there are an extra 5 Roj which are known as Gathas added to the 12th month to make a 365 day year. There are thirty days to each month and each day represents a yazata or a holy being. The first seven days of the month in the Zoroastrian calendar are dedicated to an Amesha Spenta (Bounteous Immortal). The rest of the days, except the 19th day, is represented by a Yazata (Adorable Being worthy of worship). The only exception in the calendar is Fravardin (the Guardian Spirit) who has the first month and 19th day of each month, dedicated to him.
Name of Gahs
Hawan (Sunrise to Afternoon)
Rapithwin (Afternoon to 3 PM)
Uzerin (3 PM to Sunset)
Aiwisruthrem (Sunset to Midnight)
Ushahin (Midnight to Sunrise)
A English calendar has 365.25 days thus we have leap year every 4 years. Our Calendar and English Calendar started diverging. They again aligned in 1006 C.E. resulting in Navroze occurring on the Vernal Equinox. Thus, the Scholars of Zoroastrian Community decided to add extra month after every 120 years to sync both the calendars. The Indian Zoroastrians added an extra month in 1129 C.E. Consequently, New Year, which originally correlated with the vernal equinox on March 21st, has since fallen earlier in the English calendar year such that it now occurs in August
Day names in Zoroastrian Calendar
The months and the days in the Shenshai calendar are named after divine Gods. There is very high religious significance of those names, thus, the frequent calling their names of Gods of both day and month are mentioned at every act of Parsi worship.
The first seven days celebrate Ahura Mazda and the Amesha Spentas, (lit. Beneficent Immortals) sometimes called the Archangels. They are the highest spiritual beings created by Ahura Mazda.
Every Roj with their meanings are shown below:
1. Hormazd -The Lord of Wisdom, Zarathushtra's name for God
2. Bahman - Good Mind or Purpose. Presides over animals.
3. Ardibehesht - Highest Asha. Presides over fire.
4. Shehervar - 'Desirable Dominion'. Presides over metals.
5. Asfandarmad - Holy (or Beneficent) Devotion. Presides over the Earth.
6. Khordad - Wholeness (Perfection or Health). Presides over the waters.
7. Amardad - Immortality or Life. Presides over plants.
The 2nd week celebrates LIGHT and NATURE:
8. Dae-pa-Adar - The Creator's day before Adar.
9. Adar - Fire
10. Avan -Waters
11. Khorshed - The Shining Sun
12. Mohor - The Moon
13. Tir - The Star Sirius, brightest star in the heavens
14. Gosh - Sentient Life or the Ox-Soul
The 3rd week celebrates moral qualities:
15. Dae-pa-Meher - The day of the Creator before Mithra
16. Meher - Yazad of the Contract
17. Sarosh - Yazad of 'Hearkening', i.e. paying attention
18. Rashne - Yazad of Truth
19. Fravardin - The Guardian Angels
20. Behram - Victory, Triumph over evil
21. Ram - Peace, Joy
22. Gowad - Wind, atmosphere
The 4th week celebrates religious ideas:
23. Day-pa-Din - The day of the Creator before Den
24. Din - Religion, also Inner Self or Conscience
25. Ashishvangh - Blessings or Rewards
26. Ashtad - Rectitude, Justice
27. Asman - Sky
28. Zamyad - Earth
29. Marespand - Holy Word (Manthra)
30. Aneran - Endless Light
Month names in Calendar
The month-names (with Avestan language names in parentheses), in the ordinal sequence used today, are: 1) Farvardin 2) Ardibehesht 3) Khordad 4) Tir 5) Amardad 6) Shehrevar 7) Mehr 8) Aban 9) Azar 10) Dae 11) Bahman 12) Asfand or Asfandiar
The days on which Roj-name and Mah-name dedications intersect are festival days of special worship. Because Ahura Mazda has four day-name dedications, the month dedicated to Him has four intersections (the first, eighth, fifteenth and twenty-third day of the tenth month). The others have one intersection each, for example, the nineteenth day of the first month is the day of special worship of the Fravashis.
Important festivals in Zoroastrianism
Maidyozarem ('mid-spring' feast)
Maidyoshahem ('mid-summer' feast)
Paitishahem (feast of 'bringing in the harvest')
Ayathrem ('bringing home the herds')
Maidyarem ('mid-year'/winter feast)
Hamaspathmaidyem (feast of 'All Souls')
Noruz (New Years)
In the United Kingdom, most Zoroastrians are Indians who follow the Shahanshahi calendar. The Iranian Zoroastrians mostly follow the Fasli calendar, some people follow both calendars. But, most Parsi of India follow Shenshai Calendar.